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Автор Тема: видеоконференция  (Прочитано 4480 раз)
@gn
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« : Апреля 11, 2010, 12:03:29 pm »

използването видео-конферентни връзки в съдебния процес;
 3.4.доставка на оборудване и софтуерни лицензи за
реализация на пилотен проект на видео-конферентна връзка;
 3.5.изграждане на видео-конферентна връзка

По всей видимости заказчику до сих пор не удалось найти знатоков.
Может на форуме кто то имеет опыт?





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@gn
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« Ответ #1 : Апреля 27, 2010, 06:45:21 am »

работодателя нет
приложено стандарты
TECHNICAL  ASPECTS
True-to-life principle
46. The objective is to make the videoconferencing session as close as
possible to the usual
practice in any court where evidence is taken in open court. To gain the
maximum benefit,
several differences have to be taken into account. Some matters, which
are taken for granted
when evidence is taken in the conventional way, take on a different
dimension when it is taken
by videoconferencing: for example, ensuring that the witness understands
the practical
arrangements of the videoconferencing session and which are the parties
to the
videoconferencing and what their various roles are. The following are
suggested as a checklist
of practical considerations that encourage best practice in the use of
videoconferencing:
Time zone differences need to be considered when a witness abroad is to
be examined by
videoconferencing. The convenience of the witness, the parties, their
representatives and
the court should all be taken into account.
• At the courtroom the videoconferencing tools should to the widest
extent possible be
installed and used in such a way that it supports the users' feeling of
participating in a
traditional meeting of the court.
• Those involved with videoconferencing need to be aware that, even
with the most
advanced systems currently available, there are slight delays between
the receipt of the picture and that of the accompanying sound. If due
allowance is not made for this, there
will be a tendency to "speak over" the witness, whose voice may continue
to be heard for
a fraction of a second after he or she appears on the screen to have
finished speaking.
With current technology, picture quality is good, but not as good as a
television picture.
The quality of the picture is enhanced if those appearing on
videoconferencing monitors
keep their movements to a minimum.
3.2. General Arrangements and Quality Principles
47. The videoconferencing system should be set up in such a way that the
persons concerned are
provided with an accurate picture of what is happening in the foreign
site (of the requesting or requested authority). Concerning the quality
of the visual and audio connection, sufficient
account should be taken of the interests of the persons concerned.
Consequently, the
videoconferencing system should be of high quality. Only then will a
hearing conducted via
videoconferencing provide a reasonable alternative to a face-to-face
hearing. More
particularly, this means that sounds and images need to be aligned
accurately and reproduced
without any perceptible delay. Furthermore, the external appearance,
facial expressions and
gestures of the persons concerned should be clearly perceptible.
Videoconferencing Equipment
48. In order to facilitate the use of videoconferencing equipment, all
equipment components
should as far as possible be standardised on the basis of the same types
of equipment and the
same configuration. The videoconferencing equipment should where
possible be integrated
with the established courtroom working arrangements and infrastructure.
At the courtroom the
videoconferencing tools should to the widest extent possible be
installed and used in such a
way that it creates the atmosphere of a traditional meeting of the
court. In the following
sections, the various aspects of image, lighting, sound and the
positioning and use of
equipment (cameras, microphones and screens) are discussed.
Image
49. In cross-border videoconferencing it is expected that the screen can
be used for three different
views:
• A focusing view; for transmitting images of the participants in the
other room
• An overview view; for an overview of the situation in the other room
• An information view; for transmitting documents and other
information
(this includes also any screens located in participants' "work
stations").
50. In order to guarantee objectivity, each participant should as far as
possible be portrayed in the
same way on screen. The lighting intensity, resolution and frame rate
should be compatible for
each participant. The lighting should as far as possible be such that
facial expressions are
always readily discernible, there is no shadowing around the eyes and
there are no reflections
on screens. As far as is possible, eye contact should be imitated.
Positioning of equipment
51. Equipment should be positioned in such a way that cases can still be
handled without
videoconferencing in the relevant courtroom. It should be possible to
position cameras,
screens, lighting and participants in such a way that the entire set-up
is suitable for video
hearing and video pleading in both civil and criminal proceedings. Care
should be taken in
positioning cameras to, where possible, avoid filming participants from
above or below since
this can give distorted view and affect the way the participant is
perceived.
Screens
52. Viewing angle and viewing distance should be such that all
participants can use the same
screen in the same way. The size of the screen may be large enough to
ensure that - in terms
of viewing angle - the persons involved can preferably be shown to the
same scale as would be
perceived at a normal meeting. A minimum resolution of WXGA standard
should be
achievable. As to the frames/sec, a minimum of 30 frames/sec may be
required. Facial
expressions should be readily discernible and viewing comfort high.
Cameras
53. The cameras should preferably be fixed and they should have several
pre-set positions for
panning, tilting and zooming; one of the possible positions should be
pre-set as a preference.
This allows the person operating the equipment to quickly change the
views without minimal
disruption to the court proceedings. The angle size of focusing cameras
should be large
enough to ensure that the participant's face, shoulders and upper body
are clearly visible and.
All participants should be able to move and turn towards other persons
within an area of 80 x
80 cm without disappearing from view.
54. Usually two cameras will be sufficient in the court room: one
tracking camera directed at the
examining judge, public prosecutor or lawyer, witness or suspect,
depending on who is
speaking (fixed points) and one camera to provide an overview of the
court room when
necessary. In some situations the overview picture can also be provided
at the beginning of a
session by panning a tracking camera.
55. Portable equipment is not able to provide multiple cameras, so the
provision of overview
views would be limited where such equipment is used. The use of a
witness room may be
necessary in some cases, requiring the installation of a camera.
Consideration will need to be given to the need for a witness in such a
room to confer with legal professionals out of sight of
cameras.
Speech
56. Speech will always need to be readily intelligible and no words
should be lost during
videoconferencing. The quality of the sound will need to be continuous,
with no extraneous
interference. The risk that speech quality deteriorates as a result of
speech compression should
be avoided. This means meeting certain requirements as regards lip
synchronicity (a delay of
less than 0,15 seconds), echo cancellation and background noise and
reverberation. Such
concerns are of particular importance in situations where interpreters
are involved in the
videoconference. It is desirable for the judge and court clerk to be
able to adjust the volume
on the site in order to compensate for differences in speech level.
Microphones
57. Microphones should be positioned in such a way that all speakers are
clearly understandable,
with no distortions caused by background noise. Microphones can be
built-in (into desks or
elsewhere) and should preferably be eavesdropping-proof,
direction-sensitive and fitted with a
mute button. During the hearing there can be situations when court staff
needs to be able to
switch off microphones (e.g. consultation of a party with his/her
lawyer).
Portable equipment
58. Portable equipment (screen + camera + speaker + microphone +
accessories) should be usable
either in various combinations or in conjunction with a fixed set of
equipment. The equipment
should be readily transportable (and hence not necessarily on wheels),
easy to move between
the different locations and flexible in terms of its use. Consequently,
more limitations are
expected to apply to the quality of portable equipment than to fixed
equipment (e.g. as regards
the number of participants who can be filmed clearly at the same time).
59. Portable equipment is suitable for hearing witnesses (e.g. at
another country's request), in the
event of equipment breakdown, as a temporary supplement to fixed
equipment or at special
locations such as prison hospitals. Mobile equipment, however, can be
somewhat fragile and
difficult to operate as it might entail, for example, time-consuming
readjustments of camera
positions to match new locations (it is difficult to use preset
positions).
Operation of the videoconferencing equipment
60. The operation of the videoconferencing system is most convenient
with a touch screen. It is
beneficial if operation is as user-friendly (i.e. as simple) as
possible, and consists of only a
limited number of manoeuvres, for example switching on/off, establishing
and terminating the
connection and logging on/off.
61. During use, the audiovisual solution should not require the
intervention of the operator. If any
problems arise, the operator should be able to ring a help desk. It is
for the judge to decide
whether to terminate a videoconferencing session that has been disrupted
in this way.
Recordings and Use of Documents
62. In most cases the videoconference proceedings do not require any
recording other than those
that would normally take place for such proceedings. In cases in which
the application to use
videoconferencing also seeks to have the videoconference proceedings
recorded, the
requesting authority is obliged to arrange for recording equipment to be
provided to the
requested authority where necessary so that the evidence can be recorded
by the requested
authority in the correct format. Video recording of proceedings may be
subject to restrictions
depending on the Member States involved.
63. It is expected that parties will have anticipated what documents
will be required in the course
of the proceedings and that they will have made copies available to
those participating in
advance. The parties should endeavour to agree on this. It will usually
be most convenient for
a bundle of the copy documents to be prepared in advance, which the
requesting authority
should then send to the requested authority. If technically possible,
the documents could be
presented by using a separate document camera as a part of the
videoconferencing equipment.
64. In certain situations, a document camera is not a sufficient mean
for exchanging papers. Using
a camera is for example not directly possible for the client and the
lawyer to discuss presented
documents in private. Thus, a faxed copy of the document may be more
easily available.
65. For the exchange of documents, videoconferencing could be
supplemented with shared
document repositories or document servers. These capabilities are
increasingly being used for
sharing of information but within the justice context extra care needs
to be taken to ensure that any such repository is secure, readily
available to the parties and only accessible by the
authorised parties connected to the case. Such repositories could be
available via computers at
both the sites of the requesting authority and the requested authority.
Multipoint connections and bridging
66. In cross-border videoconferencing, it should also be possible for
the system of the requesting
authority to be linked up to systems of the requested authority. Usually
the cross-border
videoconferencing concerns the establishment of a visual and audio
connection between two
locations (point-to-point), the site of the requesting authority and the
site of the requested authority. For some cases it may be necessary to
establish a connection between more than
two locations simultaneously (multipoint). This may be the case e.g.
when an interpreter is
connected to the court proceedings from a third location. The links may
be established through
a third party bridge.
67. Point-to-point connections and multipoint connections should also
comply with the
international standards applicable to videoconferencing. Those standards
have been drawn up
by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). A detailed list is
in Annex II of this
guide. The cross-border connection of the videoconferencing systems
should also be
safeguarded in such a way as to prevent recordings from being
intercepted unlawfully by third parties. If IP-to-IP connection is being
used, the methods of encryption need to be agreed
upon by the participating courts.
TECHNICAL  STANDARDS
79. Video and audio communications conferencing equipment should meet
minimum industry
standards to facilitate interoperability locally and globally. The
following are common
industry standards (mostly by the International Telecommunications Union
(ITU)).
Video
80. H.320 and H.310 standards for Video over ISDN. These standards
include guidelines for
video compression and transmission and for audio and control signals.
When a video system
of one manufacturer conferences with another brand, both video systems
automatically revert
to the common denominator of H.320. H.310 is the standard for faster
ISDN connections.
.
81. H.323 Standard for Video over Internet. The H.323 standard provides
a foundation for audio,
video, and data communications across Internet protocol-based networks.
By complying with
H.323, multi-media products and applications of different origin can
interoperate, allowing
users to communicate without concern for compatibility.
Data Conference
82. T.120 Standard for Data Conference. The T.120 is a data sharing
protocol for multipoint data
communication in a multimedia conferencing environment. It enables white
board
collaborations, file transfers, graphic presentations and application
sharing.
Picture and Audio
83. H.263 and H.264. Picture quality standard of 30 frames per second
Common Intermediate
Format (CIF) at between 336-384 kbps (kilobits per second). The standard
of 30 frames per
second ensures a near-broadcast quality picture. Examples of ITU
standards that meet this
requirement are H.263 and H.264.
84. H.239 - Picture-in-picture (PIP). Picture-in-picture or DuoVideo
H.239, permits the codec to
display at least two images on the monitor.
85. Standards for audio coding: G.711 (Pulse code modulation (PCM) of
voice frequencies),
G.722 (7 kHz audio-coding within 64 kbit/s); G.722.1 (Low-complexity
coding at 24 and 32
kbit/s for hands-free operation in systems with low frame loss).
86. Echo cancellation microphones with a 100 to 7,000 Hz frequency
response, audio muting,
on/off switch and full-duplex audio.
87. H.281 - A far end camera control protocol for videoconferences using
H.224. H.281 is the
standard for local and far-end camera control protocol for ISDN (H.320)
video conferencing,
for camera(s) with ability to pan, tilt, and zoom, both manually and
using presets.
Channels, Bandwidth and Bridging
88. Minimum of 6 channels for room videoconferencing systems using ISDN
or video systems
running as the sole application on a personal computer or larger
room-type system should have
the capacity to use 3 ISDN lines. This capacity is necessary to achieve
384 kbps at 30 frames
per second. In general, the greater the bandwidth of the connecting
circuits and processing
power of the codec, the better picture quality especially in large
screens.
89. Standards for Codecs: H.261, H.263 and H.264. The primary function
of the codec is to
compress and decompress video and audio. Multiple identical outputs can
be provided from
the single output system by a device commonly known as a
“distribution amplifier.”
90. Bandwidth On Demand Inter-Networking Group (BONDING) standards (ISDN
and H.320
only) for inverse multiplexers. Inverse multiplexers combine individual
56K or 64K channels
to create more bandwidth, which equals better picture quality.
91. H.243 - H.320/H.323 Standard for Bridging Technology. Multi-point
bridging equipment is
addressed under the standard H.243. The multipoint bridge connects all
the participants by
allowing a videoconferencing system to connect to more than two sites.
92. H.460 is a standard for the traversing of H.323 videoconferencing
signals across firewalls and
network address translation (NAT). H.460.18 and H.460.19 are standards
that enable H.323
devices to exchange signalling and media across boundary imposed by NAT
and firewalls.

Срок получения документов для участия в конкурсе - пятница.
Срок выполнения показного проэкта - сентябр.
По моему работа с Vista­ой на этапе реализации.
Сроки реализации и деньги договаривать надо до конца года.

В соучастники ещё юристы и наверное провайдер.
Юрист куда то подевался. Сейчас мне не до программирование.
« Последнее редактирование: Апреля 27, 2010, 09:44:08 am от @gn » Записан

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